Introduction. climate change and adaptation 8 2.1 the need for adaptation 8 2.2 adaptation and the unfccc 10 iii. So despite increased global warming concerns and calls for action, little seems to have been achieved due to the political challenges, and skepticism that abounds. 24 Jan. 2021. These events have been included in an additional section titled, Honorable Mention, but may have warranted top ten placement. Climate Week NYC (from September 24-30 this year) has been expanding the conversation … (More about the Kyoto Protocol, U.S. and others’ actions/inactions is discussed in subsequent pages on this section.). Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Web. This body is comprised of hundreds of climate scientists around the world. This cycle of deprivation, poverty and inequality undermines the social capital needed to deal effectively with climate change. There has been a similar concern in Australia. Also updated an animation video showing warming in different parts of the world since 1880. At the same time, there are signs of progress in Europe and the US, too. The second one is on the impact on women in Vietnam. Like almost all the prominent sceptics he has never published a peer-reviewed paper on climate change. Also, by clearing forests to support agriculture, we are transferring carbon from living biomass into the atmosphere (dry wood is about 50 percent carbon). The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. The Amazon's depth there fell more than 12 feet below its average. Climate and Civilization (4) An introductory course that questions the whole collapse narrative while teaching students about the ways in which it has and hasn’t impacted humans. Three months in 2010 were the warmest on record for that month. Significant events, such as the extreme winter weather in Europe and the flooding in Australia occurred after this date. Also added a new video showing how temperature has increased around the world since 1880. Water expands when heated, and sea levels are expected to rise due to climate change. And in terms of media manipulation, the Times also revealed that at least one interview (amongst many others) was canceled because it was with NPR, which the public affairs official responsible felt was the most liberal media outlet in the country. Edx offers both individual courses and advanced programs designed to help you learn about climate change in an engaging and effective online learning environment complete with video tutorials, quizzes and more. Weather records are being set all the time now. Once born, a hurricane needs only warm water to build and maintain its strength and intensity. Added additional notes and multimedia on ocean acidification as well as further indicators of a warming world with human causes. In its wake, scientists have reiterated that such super-storms may be a sign of things to come. Climate change will disproportionately affect the developing world, hitting India and Africa especially hard. It appears to be incapable of running an item on the subject without inviting a sceptic to comment on it. Girls drop out of school to help their mothers with these tasks. LULUCF uses can act as carbon sinks, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide (e.g. Stephen Leahy, 'Arctic Defrost Dumping Snow On U.S. And Europe', Inter Press Service, January 28, 2011, Slightly older data, but useful commentary from John Bruno, ‘It’s not climate change, it’s ocean change!’, Climate Shifts, July 12, 2010. Required registration. If LULUCF emissions/reductions are factored in, the UNFCCC finds that greenhouse emissions from industrialized nations increased by 1%, less than the increase when excluding LULUCF. Gary Schmidt is a leading climate researcher working for NASA. At such a time, capitalism and the markets will mobilize automatically to address this by looking for ways to bring down costs. Water vapor is also considered a greenhouse gas. However, (and perhaps belatedly) there is growing public acceptance of human-induced climate change as reports such as the US Global Change Research Program and the UK Met Office assert things like current climate change happening now and human-induced and that they will cause many problems. If Russia and Ukraine – which cut their CO2 emissions rapidly in the 1990s due to economic collapse – are excluded, the rise is 12%. Nowadays, in France, the discount rate is usually 4% over 20 years and then 2%, which gives us the light blue … The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) noted in November 2013 that the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere reached a new record high in 2012, continuing an upward and accelerating trend which is driving climate change and will shape the future of our planet for hundreds and thousands of years. A small amount of salt is essential for human life; Slightly more salt in our diet often makes food tastier; Too much salt can be harmful to our health. This rising temperature in the Arctic has served to reduce the region’s floating ice layer by more than 20%. Interviewing a biological oceanography professor at Harvard University, IPS notes that the world’s oceans are approaching 27 degrees C or warmer during the summer. The UNFCCC reported (November 17, 2008) that although industrialized nations have reduced emissions between 1990 and 2006, in recent years, between 2000 and 2006, greenhouse gas emissions have generally increased by 2.3% . The U.K’s Independent newspaper described the WMO’s announcement as unprecedented and astonishing because it came from a respected United Nations organization not an environmental group! * Your purchase includes a 2-page student worksheet and a 2-page teacher answer key. Get help with your earth and space science homework right here! Some of the page also restructured, in terms of sections and headings. This Specialization covers the concepts and … It has been known for some time know that developing countries will be affected the most. It was extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century, as summarized by the IPCC. Looking at 2010 as a whole year revealed a variety of extreme weather events. This would affect at least half the world’s population that either live in the region or rely on food coming from that region. In addition to poor countries, women are likely to suffer the worst, as the United Nations Population fund explains: Women—particularly those in poor countries—will be affected differently than men. Loosely defined, climate is the average weather at a distinct place that incorporates temperature, precipitation, and … Well, the ice and snow layer reflects the majority of the sun’s rays harmlessly back into space. Rahul Raoniar | Kamrup, Assam, India | PhD research scholar at PhD research scholar at IIT Guwahati | 500+ connections | See Rahul's complete profile on Linkedin and connect Scientists can observe an increase in pollution (e.g., depletion of oxygen in water, eutrophication), natural resource scarcity, and a significant and accelerated loss of biodiversity. The goal of ClimateChangeLIVE: A Distance Learning Adventure is to raise awareness and understanding of climate change, while providing a strong focus on empowering youth to take an active role in the solutions to environmental challenges. PDF | On Jan 1, 2015, R. S. Khoiyangbam and others published Introduction to Environmental Sciences | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Added small note about emissions from shipping. But why does that matter? Updated graphs on carbon emissions and global temperature anomalies as 2014 was found to be the warmest year in the modern record. For more detailed information, the following sites can be useful: As revealed towards the end of January 2006, NASA’s top climate scientist said NASA and the Bush Administration tried to silence him. Coaching. Six main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) (which is 20 times as potent a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide) and nitrous oxide (N2O), plus three fluorinated industrial gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Much of the increase in emissions in the developed world is due to the US, which promised a 7% cut under Kyoto but then did not to ratify the protocol. This will enhance the global warming, and the polar destruction of ozone, and so on. Resources that could be available more indefinitely, become finite because of our inability or unwillingness to change. Emissions within its borders increased by 17% between 1990 and 2008 – and by 25% when imports and exports are factored in. A chain reaction could result, such as the Greenland ice sheet melting (which will actually increase sea levels, whereas the melting of Arctic ice will not because it is sea ice), possibly increasing the melting of permafrost in Siberia, which will release huge amounts of methane (as noted above), and rapidly change climate patterns, circulation patterns and jet streams, far quicker than what most of the environment could adapt to easily. As this infographic shows, most of the warming is going into the oceans: As John Cook, creator of the graphic above says (see above link), Just as it takes time for a cup of coffee to release heat into the air, so to it takes time for the ocean to release its heat into the atmosphere.. The climate has always varied in the past. In addition, as Climate News Network notes, Asian countries have been cutting emissions faster than Europe and the US. NPTEL provides E-learning through online Web and Video courses various streams. There is a discussion about whether global warming is due to anthropogenic (man-made) effects. At the end of the 1990s, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) had noted that not only was the 1990s the warmest decade but at the time, the 1900s was the warmest century during the last 1,000 years. Until recently, the United States was the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Teach a man to fish; and you have fed him for a lifetime.” — Old Chinese Saying. Rapid changes to it can have knock-on effects to the rest of the planet. And as you would expect, when the reflective ice and snow layer is stripped away, it leaves a dark blue sea. Jaan Suurkula, M.D. Climate change, the periodic modification of Earth’s climate caused by atmospheric changes and the atmosphere’s interactions with geologic, chemical, biological, and geographic factors. The study shows a very different picture for countries that export more carbon-intensive goods than they import. Print. ENSO, the most prominent and far-reaching patterns of climate variability, saw a huge swing in mid-2010. Every few years, leading climate scientists at the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have released major, definitive reports detailing the progress in understanding climate change. Climate change is a complex occurrence with many possible causes. Large expanse of western Siberian peat bogs (the largest in the world) is melting, potentially releasing massive amounts of potent methane and or carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The New York Times also notes that this echoes other recent disputes, whereby many scientists who routinely took calls from reporters five years ago can now do so only if the interview is approved by administration officials in Washington, and then only if a public affairs officer is present or on the phone. Climate change, especially increases in temperature, may be important in altering the transmission of vector-borne diseases in livestock by influencing the life cycle, range, and reproductive success of disease vectors. This free online course is useful for anyone who would like to develop their use of counselling skills for use in either work or a personal capacity. Introduction; What is Climate? The U.S. being the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, pulled out in 2001, leaving treaty ratification dependent on Russia, responsible for 17% of world emissions. ANTH 107. Those observations and conclusions note that global warming will lead to the following situations, amongst others: The vicious circle Suurkula refers to is worth expanding. Now stop imagining it, and take a look at what’s happening. A persistent drought centered in the Yunan Province was touted as perhaps the worst in this region in more than 100 years. It is feared that globally, there will be mass migrations in the future as climate change makes conditions worse in some regions of the world, and these challenges will play itself out on a much larger scale, with much more human movement. Major crop losses and lack of drinking water created severe problems for local residents. (Shipping is responsible for 3.5% to 4% of all climate change emissions the Guardian also notes.). D. Salmons also has a post at Skeptical Science that explains the impact of warming Arctic’s relation to the very cold recent winters further, using the following NASA map: the Arctic has been heating up, and studies show that is happening at two to three times the global average. It’s a bit like continually bringing people on to the programme to suggest that there is no link between HIV and Aids. However, the more recent period suggests the rich country emission reductions are not sustainable. Filter by Feature . At the beginning of June, 2006, the BBC Panorama documentary followed up on this and found that many scientists felt they were being censored and that various reports had been systematically suppressed, even altered. But these [skeptics and illogical points against climate change] are rather less dangerous than the BBC, and its insistence on balancing its coverage of climate change. More recently, Brazil was struck by the first-ever recorded hurricane in the South Atlantic last March. Everyone wants in. As the World Resources Institute highlights there is a huge contrast between developed/industrialized nations and poorer developing countries in greenhouse emissions, as well as the reasons for those emissions. What do we have to do with it? However, while commercial entities can exploit resources elsewhere, local fishermen will go out of business and the poorer will likely go hungry (as also detailed on this site’s section on biodiversity). Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, threatens human health and well-being in numerous ways. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the … Even sulphur emitted from ships are thought to contribute a fair bit to climate change. In 2004, he notes a similar issue, whereby media attempts at balance has led to false balancing where disproportionate time is given to more fringe scientists or those with less credibility or with additional agendas, without noting so, and thus gives the impression that there is more debate in the scientific community about whether or not climate change is an issue to be concerned about or not: Picture a situation in which most of the media, despite the overwhelming weight of medical opinion, refused to accept that there was a connection between smoking and lung cancer. So transportation represents 28% of greenhouse gas … Despite attempts to discredit global warming concerns, the Bush Administration has now conceded that there is climate change and that humans are contributing to it, but Panorama reports that a lot of vital time has been lost, and that some scientists fear US policy may be too slow to carry out. Yet, this slowdown was in surface temperatures only even though the overall trend (using a more longer period which is more valid in climate change analysis) showed an increase in temperatures. I updated the chart he provided to include recently updated data up to 2014: In the 1880 - 1935 period, the temperature anomaly was consistently negative. History. FindAPhD. Many studies have pointed out that the rates of extinction of animal and plant species, and the temperature changes around the world since the industrial revolution, have been significantly different to normal expectations. Past warming does not automatically mean that today’s warming is therefore also natural. Causes of Climate Change. And the findings seemed to vindicate what many environmental groups had said for many years about the Kyoto Protocol as noted earlier. See IRIN’s videos on climate change impacts in Africa and Asia for more short clips. As explained by the US agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the basic chemistry of ocean acidification is well understood. Changes in biological function in the ocean caused by anthropogenic climate change go far beyond death, extinctions and habitat loss: fundamental processes are being altered, community assemblages are being reorganized and ecological surprises are likely. One of the main concerns had been the cost to the tax payer: (CAN)$14bn. Women manage households and care for family members, which often limits their mobility and increases their vulnerability to sudden weather-related natural disasters. However, it remains the largest emitter when measured in terms of emissions per person. A recently leaked memo written by Frank Luntz, the US Republican and corporate strategist, warned that The environment is probably the single issue on which Republicans in general—and President Bush in particular—are most vulnerable… Should the public come to believe that the scientific issues are settled, their views about global warming will change accordingly. Importance: Why Should We Care About Climate Change? Accounts for roughly four percent of the world’s population; Accounts for approximately 20% of global emissions and some 40% of industrialized country emissions; Accounts for roughly 3 percent of the world’s population; Accounts for around 10% of global emissions and 24% of industrialized countries’ man-made emissions of the six main gases; Recent years have seen a reduction in emissions from those initial 15-member states. It is difficult to imagine not having faced this question numerous times over the ten years since the initiation of the New York City Climate Week as part of the UN General Assembly Meeting.. The 1909 temperature anomaly (-0.47oC) was the lowest year on record. Half of all Himalayan glaciers will be significantly reduced by 2050, leading to 23% of the population of China being deprived of the vital dry season glacial melt water source. More recently, The Guardian provided a useful summary of the impacts of this approach: carbon emissions cuts by developed countries since 1990 have been canceled out by increases in imported goods from developing countries — many times over. GISS uses the 1951 - 1980 period for their baseline period. ... and science of relationships. The other difference between the natural carbon cycle and human-induced climate change is that the latter is rapid. An online training course on Global Health at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface. As you saw in the video about climate change, 65% of greenhouse gases are linked to CO2 emissions due to fossil fuel combustion. In the same period, UK emissions fell by 28 million tonnes, but when imports and exports are taken into account, the domestic footprint has risen by more than 100 million tonnes. After working in mental health and education for 20 years, I’ve learned that nobody likes being told what to do. I do not believe that amongst the scientists there is a discussion as to whether global warming is due to anthropogenic effects. Following the early and pronounced snow melt, the North American, Eurasian and Hemispheric snow cover was the smallest on record for May and June 2010. In South Asia, the Himalayan glaciers could retreat causing water scarcity in the long run. Because of this, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are higher today than they have been over the last half-million years or longer. Pollution from various industries, the burning of fossil fuels, methane from farm animals, forest destruction, rotting/dead vegetation etc have led to an increased number of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The documentary exposing this revealed possible corruption within government due to extremely close ties with such industries and lobby groups, and alleged silencing of government climate scientists. Furthermore, Where scientists’ points of view on climate policy align with those of the administration, however, there are few signs of restrictions on extracurricular lectures or writing. Since 1909, global temperature has warmed, with the most recent years showing the highest anomalies of +0.6 oC in the past 120 years. Is that too late or will it be okay? Worksheet and Answer Key comes as both PDF and editable .docx file. The previous link mentions that despite computer climate models predicting loss of Arctic sea ice by 2050 to 2080, some scientists fear it could be as soon as 2015. In 1998, Hurricane Mitch killed nearly 20,000 people in Central America, and more than 4,000 people died during disastrous flooding in China. Any U.N. country can be a member of the IPCC and can challenge the findings in its reports. Prerequisites: upper-division standing. Climate change has a greater impact on those sections of the population, in all countries, that are most reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods and/or who have the least capacity to respond to natural hazards, such as droughts, landslides, floods and hurricanes. If they died, it implied oxygen levels were low and signaled mine workers to get out. (Their 2001 report claimed a 66% certainty.). In addition, Western Siberia has warmed faster than almost anywhere else on the planet, with an increase in average temperatures of some 3°C in the last 40 years. The WorldWatch Institute reports that [t]he Earth’s ice cover is melting in more places and at higher rates than at any time since record keeping began. Some have described the Arctic as the canary in the coal mine, referring to how canary birds used to be taken deep down coal mines. While NASA said this was standard procedure to ensure an orderly flow of information, the scientist, Dr. James Hansen disagreed, saying that such procedures had already prevented the public from fully grasping recent findings about climate change that point to risks ahead. , there are signs of progress in Europe and the baseline mean are called anomalies accumulation. Food and our health rest of the excess CO2 released by human activity shown on the impact on women Vietnam! 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