Measuring from the house, locate the post lines with additional batter boards and strings. Before installing Econodek waterproof vinyl membrane decking take a look at these deck building tips to properly build a deck and install deck flooring. Where local building codes allow this practice, you can bolt a patio overhead’s posts directly to existing deck beams, joists, or other heavy structural members. The posts of the railing system should be connected to the rim and joists or blocking using through-bolts and metal tension ties, such as the Advanced Lateral Anchor System available from DeckLok ( You’re probably saying, wait what about the footings? As an alternative, consider upgrading the decking and railings with composite materials (bottom right). STAIRWAYS — Section 1009 of the CFC is adopted in its entirety, stated below. Our local stores do not honor online pricing. I like this method because it allows me to place my footings exactly where I want them and eliminates all the layout work with strings and batter boards that’s otherwise required to locate the footings. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; Instead, it is fastened from outside the house. Building Official's Position. Any longer than that and you’re dealing with special orders or adding additional footings or beams to support joists that span the distance. Install blocking in each joist bay, alternating the block along the chalk line to allow direct nailing. A Building Permit is required for all decks except where: • Distance from the finished ground to the finished deck is not more than 24” and • The deck is not supporting a roof Note: A deck must comply with the building code and zoning requirements. The Building Inspector's name and phone number are identified on the building permit. The codes from your local building department or homeowners association might limit the size or location of your expanded deck (perhaps that's the reason why it's so small to begin with!). From inspired deck and railing designs, trim and molding applications, porch colors and paver layouts, the app places the power of creative outdoor visualization in any user’s hands. The BC Building Code (BCBC) is a provincial regulation that governs how new construction, building alterations, repairs and demolitions are completed. out from the post. Once installed the plugs almost disappear. Deck posts should be 4×6 pressure-treated lumber and have galvanized or stainless steel connectors attaching them to the rim joist. Either way, the temporary supports will hold the deck in place until we install and connect the deck posts to the footings. The distance your joists can safely cantilever or overhang a drop beam is determined by the size of the joists, the wood type and grade of the lumber and the spacing between joists. Diagonal braces should be installed at a 45-degree angles 24 in. To guide our ¾” decking overhang, we temporarily face-nail a ¾” board around the rim to use as a gauge. Toll Free: 1-877-960-9333. The decimal numbering system has been used to identify particular requirements for individual parts and sections. About the Codes 1. The owner preferred an open, no-railing look. If you’ve always dreamed of building your own deck but were hesitant to tackle such a large, complicated construction project, well I’m here to tell you it’s not that difficult. Reimagine Outdoor Spaces with the 3D iPad App from AZEK. The best source of information regarding your frost-line depth is your local building department. You'll also need to contact your utility companies and ask them to send someone out to your house to mark any underground utility lines. These connections are needed to resist lateral and uplift loads. When planning size, make sure you'll have enough room for your outdoor furniture and that you'll have enough room to move around. Think about size in terms of the decking as well. If your deck has wood support posts and a ledger board that is bolted to the house, the deck posts holds up approximately 50 percent of the total weight. Use metal joist hangers to connect all joist ends. Tube-shaped cardboard forms can be cut to length and placed in the holes to pour the concrete footings. Rule of thumb for joist span: Take the “depth of the framing member” and add half that number to determine a rough footage estimate for the deck’s joist span limit. diameter galvanized bolts and washers for which I drill 17/32- to 9/16-in. Ontario Building Code is divided into 12 Parts. Accessibility – What are the requirements in the BC Building Code? The Building Act and regulations, including Other building regulations outside the BC Codes; Requirements for Building Officials who oversee and may enforce the Building Code … overhang. This requires accessing the basement rim joist area. maximum riser height. Drill pilot holes in the ends of boards to prevent splitting when you nail or screw them together. Once installation is complete, remove the board and paint/stain the rim. See our video Why Is a 2 x 4 Not 2 by 4? The average frost line in Massachusetts is between 30 and 35 inches. Building a deck is the ultimate backyard DIY project. Use wood rated for ground contact when necessary for the project. We snap a chalk lines across the joists to lay out blocking. Guard rails can be either 36 to 42 inches high (refer to your local code for guidance). Follow the metal connector manufacturer’s recommendations for fastening any metal connector in your deck. Once the ledger is attached to the house we install a rim joist on either side and one rim or beam opposite the ledger. Often times scrap materials from your framing lumber may be used for blocking; we often use joist cut-offs. I sometimes leave the strings up for a few days and ask the client to walk around, place furniture, etc., to make sure they like the size or shape of the deck. The temporary board gauges our 3/4-in. What is the cost? When planning a deck, one begins with the sizes of the framing material. Editor’s Note: Robert Robillard is a remodeling contractor based in Concord, MA. See our Deck Planning and Materials Buying Guide to get details on different options. British Columbia Building Code (BCBC)³ dictates the structural requirements for exterior decks and balconies including stairs and guardrails. Mark the width of the deck on the house as well to help you position the frame later. If the building complies with Part 9 of BCBC, which regulates the construction of houses and small buildings, then the structural requirements must meet the Business Hours: Mon. Place the batter boards beyond the corners of your planned area. These building codes set the minimum requirements for construction, including requirements for framing floor joists. As the project in question is a deck, not a balcony, Article does not apply. amzn_assoc_asins = "B07K4ZK2C6,B011HUDZXK,B002U0L5GG,B00L3Z2UZE"; Enter e-mail address to subscribe and get latest updates and info. 57.1009. Foot Traffic Paths Measuring from the house, locate the post lines with additional batter boards and strings. 3. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "eht1-20"; U.S. Building Codes for Deck Railing. When choosing deck lumber based on joist span, I use the following easy-to-remember rule of thumb that works for most of the treated wood species that. down from the beam and 24 in. 3. maximum railing height, they should be replaced. Probably the most commonly used technique is to install small pieces of material in between the joists to help prevent deck bounce and also to increases the strength of the rail post attachment. Footing tubes come in different lengths from 4 to 10 feet. We used 12-in. Also available are colored screws to match the decking, as well as various hidden-fastener systems that are concealed beneath the deck boards. Ninth Edition of the State Building Code The ninth edition building code was filed with the Secretary of State on Friday, October 6, 2017 and will therefore become first effective on October 20th. This process rejuvenates the wood. Non-elevated patio covers […], Armstrong’s deck and siding wood stain has nondrying conditioning oils that separate from the drying side of the formula. The DTT1Z fastens to the narrow or wide face of a single 2x with Strong-Drive SD Connector screws. Uniform Load Test: The top rail must be able to sustain 125 lbs … ... as long as it’s all to code and in accordance with specific zoning bylaws. What is Econodek. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; Use two through-bolts and a metal tension tie for the upper bolt connection. 2. We also like to install protective flashing to the joist tops. Deck safety is a real problem. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Roofing nails, screws and box nails have no place in any metal connector system and should be avoided and replaced at all costs. for a 36-in. The basic deck construction for this project consists of: For larger decks, you can install parting boards — also called pattern boards — in the middle of the decking. After you've laid out the posts, mark the height of the deck and posts on the house. Code Availability and Cost 1. See the complete deck series at Once this frame is built we take diagonal measurements and use the 3-4-5 method to square the frame. The depth of the deck footings will be determined by your local frost line and building codes. TIP: If the joist has a crown—a slight arc along its edge—install it crown-side up. Depending on where we are on the project, I might install the joists before pouring the footing or vice versa. The reader must always exercise reasonable caution, follow current codes and regulations that may apply, and is urged to consult with a licensed professional if in doubt about any procedures. If a deck’s guard-posts anchoring does not have a minimum allowable tension load of 1,800 lbs. Once you have a basic layout, bring it to Lowe's to have an associate put together professional deck plans and a materials list. Fill them with concrete, using a shovel to work out air pockets. See the complete deck project from design to finishing touches. You’ll often see decking boards listed with a common (or nominal) measurement of 5/4 inch thick. The ledger board must be located 4 to 7-3/4 inches below the door sill. Planning the location of deck stairs is a critical first decision. Or, you can lag-screw through post bases and decking into the top of a deck joist or beam. For this reason it’s always important to install deck and porch footings below the frost line for your area as well as to make sure the installed footing is on soil that will support the footing’s load. Apply the J-bolt and allow the concrete to cure for one week. What is the BC Plumbing Code? These decking boards run perpendicular to the rest of the decking, creating an eye-catching design. Before even contemplating a deck, check with your local building authorities to determine if there are any restrictions and if building permits are required.Many communities have set-back rules that determine how close you can build to property lines, as well as requirements for heights, structural supports, and dimensions for railings and stairways. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; Next, it’s time to install the joists. A deck should complement its environment, your landscape, and enhance your outdoor living space. Why is the Building Code not available online for free? The latest permitted lateral-load connection detail requires hardware that connects the bottom of a joist back to the wall plates, foundation, studs, or window or door headers. After exploring the two-dimensional visualization and customizing the product color schemes, the user can then take the design to the level of cutting-edge 3D technology to bring an entire house to life. All Right Reserved. Building maintenance-free decks in Calgary since 2005. Cover the exposed sheathing with self-adhering waterproof membrane. Tie strings to them marking the outer edges of your deck. deviation from one another is allowed by code but should be avoided. Stepping down 7 inches onto the deck reduces snow buildup and rain splashing and getting in under the house door. (By code, any step down to the finish decking, which sits atop the ledger, must be 4 to 7¾ inches below the door sill.) amzn_assoc_linkid = "a5c999be9298f1e4ecbd7006090939c1"; to learn about the difference between common/nominal measurements and actual measurements. Regardless of the material you use, you need to be aware that North Carolina has strict guidelines for deck building. For a list of required inspections that may apply based on the proposed sundeck, please refer to the following table. They can be retrofitted with a tension tie, through-bolts and or blocking as needed. While you might indicate this measurement as 1-1/4 inch, the standard reference is 5/4 inch. There are approximately 40 million decks in the United States, and only half of those are code-compliant. Step-by-Step Outdoor Spiral Staircase Construction, Painting Tips & Layout Guidelines for Remodeling your Bathroom, How To Cut And Install Crown Molding And Trim, Install Plywood Underlayment for Vinyl Flooring. It's a job usually best left for the pros. In the 3D experience, a user will scan what is known as a “visualization marker”, such as the cover of any AZEK catalog or a downloadable image from, to enter the exciting world of Augmented Reality (AR). After ensuring that the sheathing is structurally sound, we cover the area above and below the ledger board location with self-adhering rubber. We dig concrete footings to support all deck posts. I lay out the deck using 12-in. For decks more than 30 inches off the ground, railings are critical safety features. Whatever your reason for building a deck—for entertaining, relaxing or outdoor living, you will need to consider materials for your decking. Mark the exact location of the top of the ledger. diameter footings on this deck. Mark the post positions on the strings. This will make it much easier for you to know where the best location of your stairway should be. ... a quality sundeck contractor will help streamline the process and … Decks can be built with all sorts of designs. Use washers at the carriage-bolt head and the bolt nut. Copyright 2021 Extreme How To. Building on an Existing Deck. Learn more at Check your local building code to confirm fastener spacing in your area. Although the deck shown in this article was low to the ground, any deck higher than 30 inches requires a handrail/guardrail system. If your deck is more than 30 inches off the ground it requires guardrails or handrails. A ledger board is the part that attaches the deck to the house. You can eliminate some of the necessary posts by attaching a ledger board to your house, but it can cause problems later if not done right. Even a small deck might weigh in at 10,000 or more pounds. Check your local codes to see if this is required in your area. You’ve just built your first deck and you might as well start enjoying it. A patio at ground level could be an alternate option for an elevated deck. The code has some very specific requirements for deck stairs: Stair rails on decks should be between 34 inches and 38 inches high, measured vertically from the nose of the tread to the top of the rail. We then add additional “temporary” support legs and start digging the footings. The deck should be below the door threshold to keep water out of the house. For better visualization you can join the spikes with string to show the perimeter of the deck. Whether you’re building off a napkin sketch or a detailed architectural drawing, you need to transfer the deck design onto the ground to get started. Mark the post hole locations on the ground with paint. We start left to right and mark out the ledger and outside rim joist 16-inches on center in a square line. A sod cutter can make this job easier. When poured in place most folks use footing forms from Bigfoot Systems, Sonotube or an equivalent concrete form. The wider base also helps prevent frost heave from lifting the deck. Code Requirements and Application 1. Deck support posts should be mechanically fastened both to the footing in the ground and the deck frame or beam. The tubes are cardboard and are easy to cut with a hand saw. After the decking is complete, it’s time to reinstall the siding. The new Strong-Drive SDWH Timber-Hex HDG screw with an integral washer attaches the tension tie to the supporting structure with a minimum of 3 inches of penetration. Small sections of joist material can be installed between the joists as mid-span blocking to help prevent deck bounce and strengthen through-the-deck rail post attachments. 6 feet. When we get to the last few deck boards next to the house, we measure and to determine the width of the very last board. I also like using structural screws because they don’t require pre-drilling, are corrosion-resistant and are designed to be used with pressure-treated lumber. Improperly built decks can be dangerous. Granite steps provide access to the finished deck. My inspector wants to see deck footings 48 inches deep. Also, make sure to install a properly sized nail or fastener into every metal connector hole provided. Note what elements of the project require inspection and plan your work accordingly. The Building official maintains that a deck and a balcony are the same for the purposes of Article After the ledger is temporarily fastened to the house, we go back and install permanent fasteners. The drying oils stay at the surface, lock in the conditioning oils and create a dry to […]. Easy Code-Compliant Solution for Attaching Decks to Homes. Deck posts are supposed to rest securely and centered on these footings with a threaded anchor or J-bolt holding it down. Like the maximum spacing for balusters, this is intended to prevent small children from getting stuck or falling through. This is faster than trying to measure each board and get the ends to match up. This means that proper attachment to the house is extremely important. See Making and Using Batter Boards assembly instructions. See How to Build a Deck: Post Holes and Framing. Econodek Econodek. Read more about pressure-treated lumber and wood preservatives on the EPA website: The next stage of the project includes setting the posts and building the framing. Starting out in the 2D section, an iPad user can choose any of five home scenes, and mix and match products, designs and colors to customize the scenes. If the lumber is wet — it typically is when delivered from the store — butt it together tightly when building. To achieve a 3/4-in. And, after completion, the dream design can be saved, adding notes or tags, and then shared with friends. This method gives the appearance of all full boards at the house. This small area was designed to store a gas grill. Deck boards are typically 5-1/2 inches wide, so try to plan a deck size that won't leave narrow pieces at the ends. NOTE – The latest building codes require decks supported by a house to be built with a “positive attachment” to resist lateral loads. In this situation, the soil under each deck footing may be called upon to support 3,000 plus pounds. 2. We install a metal or PVC flashing cap over the ledger board using roofing nails, and only place fasteners high up on the flashing. Rule of thumb for joist span: Take the “depth of the framing member” and add half that number to determine a rough footage estimate for the deck’s joist span limit. Sometimes the area below an elevated deck has siding, so I install the rubber to overlap a siding course and then cover with the last siding course or trim. Errors will be corrected where discovered, and Lowe's reserves the right to revoke any stated offer and to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions including after an order has been submitted. Wash your hands after working with treated wood. Follow the manufacturers’ recommendations for fastener length and placement. The BC Building and Plumbing Code, which set the technical requirements for building construction throughout B.C. Next to the house, drive stakes as close to the house as possible and tie strings to them. These oils penetrate deep into the deck or siding wood fiber where the wood’s natural oils used to be. Simpson Strong-Tie introduces a new deck tension tie for attaching a deck to a home that meets newly updated code standards. Always follow the manufacturer's recommendations for fasteners and structural hardware. Don't use pressure-treated wood as mulch. The DTT1Z deck tension tie is a safe and time-saving alternative that eliminates the need to access floor joists from inside the house. As roofs run different pitches, these labor intensive post mounts have to be customized for each roof. If your posts are notched to hold a beam they should be a minimum of 6×6 (nominal) and have a corrosion-resistant post-to-footing and post-to-beam connector. We use scrap lumber as “legs” to hold the two rim joists level and then attach and outer rim joist (opposite the ledger board) to complete the perimeter frame. If you plan on building a deck on your own, we still recommened seeking the advice of a professional deck builder. A concrete “footing” helps support the weight of the deck by spreading out the loads created by each post over a wider area. sphere can not pass between them. Once the ledger board is level and permanently installed, we run additional rubber down the side wall and over the ledger board. Once the footing is cured we install support posts. This rule is not a substitute for a proper table of spans and sizes of framing lumber, but is helpful in over-designing my joists during the early phase. With the new app, it’s easy to turn dreams of outdoor living spaces into visual reality with a simple tap or swipe using five different product scenarios. If you built your deck smaller than the longest available decking board length, you can install the decking without any joints. Local codes were created to keep us safe, and many existing decks do not meet current safety codes. (See sidebar for the latest technique to make the necessary connection. 3. pilot holes. We cut all our joists at the same time, toe-nail them to the ledger and direct-nail them through our single outside rim joist. Check that the strings are close to level. They also allow you to use shorter deck boards and can eliminate the need to butt boards together to span the width of the deck. Additional metal connectors can be used to connect stair stringers to the deck frame. Treads must be at least 10 inches deep, measuring from front to back. In my experience this rule of thumb always comes in shorter than the building codes allow—which is a good thing! To reduce cost and material waste I always try to work within readily available pressure-treated lumber lengths, such as 8-, 10-, 12-, 14- and 16-ft. long boards. When you have a solid plan, you can mark the layout with strings and batter boards made from 2-foot furring strips and screws. overhang on the deck surface, we first temporarily face-nail a 3/4-in. Joists typically extend from the ledger-board connected to the house. Adding diagonal bracing to both the parallel and perpendicular side of the deck post is also a good idea to reduce lateral motion and racking of the deck. Install the blocking flush with the top of the deck frame. 1009.7.2 Riser height and tread depth. Fastening two lengths of strapping from the outer rim joist’s center diagonally to the side rim joists helps to hold the deck square. I prefer to build the outer perimeter or the “sandbox frame” as we joke on the jobsite. If there is space I will run rubber 10 inches up and as far down as necessary to keep water from getting into the house. AZEK Building Products is making it easier than ever to visualize new deck, railing, paver and trim products on a home. There are a few retrofit options available to accomplish the post to beam. Diagonal bracing will hold the structure square while you add permanent supports and joists. You can determine this by using an approved manufacturer’s product data based on the dimensions of your joists or header. Every year we hear about decks that collapse under the weight of people or snow load. Building a deck requires careful planning. The diameter of the holes for your footings especially large ones, create significant concentrated loads within the soil. Depending on the porch load, the diameter of the hole will probably range between 8 and 24 inches. The International Building Code is a model code that has been adopted by all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia. diameter sphere to pass through. Pressure-treated wood shrinks as it dries. temporary board. We use our speed squares to space the deck boards from each other during installation. Many building departments limit joist cantilevers to 24" maximum. On some of our decks we use composite deck boards. I use for building. The owner preferred an open, no-railing look. This notes the top of the posts. The ledger board requires continuous flashing against the house and over the ledger to prevent water intrusion. lateral connections from the deck to the floor joists within the house. Guards are required when then deck is 24" (60 cm) above grade. NC Building Code Requirements for Decks. The reality is that the last board usually gets ripped to size, and we hate installing a 1- to 2-in. This is accomplished using hardware connectors that tie the deck into the house to protect against lateral stresses from wind, seismic or people on the deck. I use 1/2-in. Joist hangers must meet IBC and IRC code of downward capacity. Tools, products, materials, techniques, building codes, and local regulations change; therefore, Lowe's assumes no liability for omissions, errors, or the outcome of any project. For more information, contact The City of Oshawa’s Building Department at 905-436-5658. Exterior stairs must have lighting at the stair's top landing while interior stairs require lighting at the top and bottom of the stairs. Most deck footings these days are either poured in place or precast. If the stairs have an open riser they should not allow a 4-in. Link to Lowe's Home Improvement Home Page, How to Build a Deck: Wood Decking and Railings, How to Build a Deck: Composite Stairs and Stair Railings, How to Build a Deck: Post Holes and Deck Framing, How to Build a Deck: Composite Decking and Deck Railings, How to Build a Deck: Post Holes and Framing. Contact Sundeck Solutions Inc. today for your estimate. Anchor bolts are designed to resist post movement and deck uplift from high winds. Pressure-treated lumber (top right) is the standard material to withstand weather. 0 $ 0.00. Stair riser heights shall be 7… The rule of thumb says that 15 feet is your maximum allowable span for generic 2×10 joist (16” on center. Where can I buy the Building Code, Plumbing Code and Fire Codes? The posts should be a minimum 4×4 size and be solidly anchored to the deck joist and rim joist of the structure. It is the first board to be installed because it sets the base for the rest of the deck. A building code, as stated by Wikipedia, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. BC Building Code 2018. Mid-span blocking can be used for a variety of purposes in deck building. The minimum height of the railing varies based on the height of the deck. If you calculate the weight of the entire deck, the furniture placed on it and the combined weight of a large group of people who might be standing on it, you will be shocked at the number. A free new app, the AZEK iPad App, provides the power to reimagine home and outdoor living spaces in realistic 2D and 3D renderings. He is also the editor of a To ensure safety, individual communities in the … This provision is an alternative to using two 1,500-lb. Mark a level line at this height along the house. The tests include: Infill Load Test: The strength of the balusters are tested so that a one-square foot area must resist 125 lbs of force. Follow IRC code requirements when installing fasteners into guard posts. Once we locate the ledger board height, we level it and temporarily fasten it to the house with 16d galvanized nails. The decking surface is also easier to clean, which equates to less maintenance. This often is determined by the joist span needed. A residential stairway in Florida must have a minimum head height of 6 feet 8 inches and a minimum width of 3 feet. Here, we’re doubling up the rim of a small alcove before applying joist hangers. For example, on a 2×10 take 10 and add half of that (5) to equal 15. The layout is square when the diagonal measurements of the area are equal. Some carpenters will put trim on the deck and side to that trim, or simply keep the siding off the decking 1/2 to 1 inch.

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